One of the sectors that foster national development is education by ensuring the result of a functional human resource. The development institution of strong educational structures leads to a society populated by enlightened people, who can cause positive economic progress and social transformation. A Positive social change and its associated economic growth are achieved as the people apply the skills they learned while in school. The acquisition of these skills is facilitated by one individual we all ‘teacher’. For this reason, nations seeking economic and social developments need not ignore teachers and their role in national development.
Teachers are the primary factor that drives students’ achievements in learning. Teachers’ performance generally determines not only the quality of educateducation butthe general performance of the students they train. Therefore, the teachers themselves ought to get the best of education, so they can, in turn, help train students in the best of ways. It is known that the quality of teachers and quality teaching are some of the most critical factors that shape the learning and social and academic growth of students. Quality training will ensure, to a large extent, teachers are of exceptionally high qualiexceptionallyso as to be able to properly manage classrooms and facilitate learning. That is why teacher quality is still a matter of concern; even, in countries where students consistently obtain high scores in international exams, such as Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). In such countries, teacher education of prime imports ance because of its potential to cause positive students’ achievements.
The structure of teacher education keeps changing in almost all countries in response to the quest to produce teachers who understand students’ current needs or just the demand for teachers. The changes are attempts to ensure that quality teachers are delivered and sometimes just ensure that classrooms are not free of teachers. In the U.S.A, promoting high-quality teachers has been an issue of contention and, for the past decade or so, has been motivated, basically, through the methods prescribed by the No Child Left Behind Act (Accomplished California Teachers, 2015). Even in Japan and other Eastern countries, where more teachers are needed, and structures have been instituted to ensure high-quality teachers are produced and employed, issues relating to the teacher and teaching quality are still of concern (Ogawa, Fujii & Ikuo, 2013). Teacher education is, therefore, no joke anywhere. This article is in two parts. It first discusses Ghana’s teacher education system, and the second part looks at some determinants of quality teaching.
2.0 TEACHER EDUCATION
Ghana has been making deliberate attempts to produce quality teachers for her primary school classrooms. As Benneh (2006) indicated, Ghana’s aim of teacher education is to provide a complete teacher education program through initial teacher training and in-service training programs that will produce competent teachers who will help improve the effectiveness of the teaching and learning that goes on in schools. The Initial teacher education program for Ghana’s primary school teachers was offered in Colleges of Education (CoE) only, until quite recently when the University of Education, University of Cape Coast, Central University College, and other tertiary institutions joined in. The most striking difference between the programs offered by the other tertiary institution is that while the Universities teach, examine, and award certificates to their students, the Colleges of Education offer tuition. In contrast, the University of Cape Coast, through the Institute of Education, examines and award certificates. The training programs offered by these institutions are attempts at providing many qualified teachers to teach in the schools. The National Accreditation Board accredits teacher training programs to ensure quality.
The National Accreditation Board accredits teacher education programs based on the structure and content of the courses proposed by the institution. Hence, the methods run by various institutions differ in content and format. For example, the course content for the Institute of Education, University of Cape Coast is slightly different from the course structure and content of the Center for Continue Education, the University of Cape Coast, and none of these two programs matches that of the CoEs, though they all award Diploma in Basic Education (DBE) after three years of training. The DBE and the Four-year Untrained Teacher’s Diploma in Basic Education (UTDBE) programs run by the CoEs are only similar, but not the same. The same can be said of the Two-year Post-Diploma in Basic Education, Four-year Bachelor’s degree programs run by the University of Cape Coast, the University of Education, Winneba, and the other Universities and University Colleges. In effect, even though, same products attract the same clients, the preparation of the products are done in different ways.
Through these many programs, teachers are prepared for the primary schools – from nursery to senior high schools. Alternative pathways or programs through which teachers are prepared are seen to be good in situations where there are shortages and more teachers ought to be trained within a concise time. A typical example is the UTDBE program mentioned above, which designed to equip non-professional teachers with professional skills. But this attempt to produce more teachers, because of a shortage of teachers, tends to comprise quality.
As noted by Xiaoxia, Heeju, Nicci, and Stone (2010), the factors that contribute to the problems of teacher education and teacher retention are varied and complex. Still, one factor that teacher educators are concerned about is the alternative pathways through which teacher education occurs. The prime aim of many of the ways is to fast-track teachers into the teaching profession. This short-changed the necessary teacher preparation that prospective teachers need before becoming classroom teachers. Those who favor alternative routes, like Teach for America (TFA), according to Xiaoxia, Heeju, Nicci, and Stone (2010), have defended their alternative pathways by saying that even though the students are engaged in a short period of pre-service training, the students are academically brilliant and so can learn a lot in a short period. Others argue that in subjects like English, Science, and mathematics where there are usually shortages of teachers, there must be a deliberate opening up of alternative pathways to good candidates who had done English, Mathematics, and Science courses at the undergraduate level. None of these arguments in support of alternative routes, hold for the alternative teacher education programs in Ghana, where the academically brilliant students shun teaching for reasons I shall come to.
When the target is just to fill vacant classrooms, issues of quality teacher preparation are relegated to the background, somehow. Right at the selection stage, the alternative pathways ease the requirement to enter teacher education programs. When, for example, the second batch of UTDBE students was admitted, I can confidently say that entry requirements into the CoEs were not adhered to. What was emphasized was that the applicant must be a non-professional essential school teacher engaged by the Ghana Education Serice. The applicant holds a certificate above Basic Education Certificate Examination. The grades obtained did not matter. If this pathway had not been created, the CoEs would not have trained students who initially did not enroll in the regular DBE program. However, it leaves in its trail the debilitating effect of compromised quality.
Even with regular DBE programs, I have realized, just recently I must say, that CoEs, in particular, are not attracting candidates with very high grades. This, as I have learned now, has a significant influence on both teacher quality and teacher effectiveness. Teacher education programs in Ghana are not regarded as prestigious programs, so applicants with high grades do not opt for education programs. And so, the majority of applicants who apply for teacher education programs have, relatively lower rates. When the entry requirement for CoEs’ DBE program for the 2016/2017 academic year was published, I noticed the minimum entry grades had been dropped from C6 to D8 for West African Senior Secondary School Examination candidates. This drop-in standard could only be attributed to CoEs’ attempt to attract more applicants. The universities, too, lower their cut-off point for education programs so as attract more candidates. As alleged by Levine (2006), the universities see their teacher education programs, so to say, as cash cows. Their desire to make money forces them to lower admission standards to increase their enrollments like the CoEs have done. The fact that admission standards are internationally lowered to achieve a goal of increasing numbers. This weak recruitment practice or lowering of standards introduces a severe challenge to teacher education.
The Japanese have made teacher education and teaching prestigious and therefore attract students with high grades. One may argue that in Japan, the supply of teachers far exceeds the demand, so authorities are not under any pressure to hire teachers. Their system won’t suffer if they do all to select higher grade students into teacher education programs. The issues relating to the selection of teachers are more important than the issues relating to recruitment. However, in western and African countries, the issues relating to recruitment are prime. It is so because the demand for teachers far outweighs that of supply. Western and African countries have difficulties recruiting teachers because teachers and the teaching profession are not highly esteemed. Teacher education programs, therefore, do not attract students who have perfect grades. It is worth noting that it is not the recruiting procedure only that determines whether or not teacher education will be prestigious However, recruiting candidates with high grades ensures that teachers will exhibit the two characteristics essential to effective teaching – quality and effectiveness after training. Teacher education can be effective if the teaching profession is held in high esteem and therefore attracts the best of applicants. Otherwise, regardless of incentives put into place to attract applicants and the measures put in place to strengthen teacher education, teacher education programs cannot fully achieve their purpose.
To strengthen teacher preparation, there is the need for teacher preparation programs to provide good training during the initial teacher training stage and provide and sustain support during the first few years after the teachers have been employed. That is why Lumpe (2007) supports the idea that pre-service teacher education programs should ensure teachers have gained a good understanding of effective teaching strategies. Methodology classes, therefore should center on effective teaching strategies. Irrespective of the training program’s pathway, the program must be structured such that trainees gain knowledge about pedagogy, besides the inside of the subject matter. They should also get enough exposure to practical classroom experiences like the on-campus and off-campus teaching practice. Whether or not there is the need to fill vacancies in the classroom due to the high teacher attrition many countries face, teacher preparation programs should aim to produce quality and effective teachers and not just fill vacancies.
3.0 DETERMINANTS OF TEACHER QUALITY
Teacher quality has such an enormous influence on students’ learning. Anyone who has been in the teaching business will agree that teacher quality is central to education reform efforts. Priagula, Agam & Solmon (2007) described teacher quality as an important in-school factor that significantly impacts students’ learning. Quality teachers have a positive impact on the success of students. Where the students have quality and effective teachers, the students make learning gains while those with ineffective teachers show declines. Concerning the classroom teacher, teacher quality is a continuous process of self-assessment to have professional development and a self-renewal to enhance teaching. For the teacher educator, an effective or quality teacher has a pleasing subject-matter and pedagogy knowledge, which he/she can build upon.
Outstanding teachers possess and exhibit many exemplary qualities. They have the skills, subject matter, and pedagogy to reach every child. They help equip their students with the knowledge and breadth of awareness to make sound and independent judgments. Three determinants of teacher quality will be considered here. They are; pedagogical knowledge, subject-matter content knowledge, and experience.
3.1 PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE
Trainees of every profession receive some sort of education that will give them insight into and prepare them for the task ahead. That of the teacher is called Pedagogical Content Knowledge or Pedagogical Knowledge. Pedagogical Content Knowledge can be described as knowledge the teachers use in organizing classrooms, delivering the content the students must show mastery over, and managing the students entrusted into their care. Generally speaking, pedagogical knowledge is knowledge the teacher uses to facilitate students’ learning. Pedagogical Content Knowledge is in two primary forms – teachers’ knowledge of the students’ preconceptions and teachers’ knowledge of teaching methodologies. Students come to class with a host of prejudices relating to the things they are learning. The preconceptions may or may not be consistent with the actual subject matter that is delivered. Teachers must have a good idea of both kinds of prejudice to help students replace the inconsistent preconceptions or build upon the consistent preconceptions to bring about meaningful learning. Teachers must have a repertoire of teaching methodologies for facilitating students’ learning. When the methods are misapplied little, or no knowledge occurs in students. In effect, when either of the two is weak, the teacher becomes a bad one because that teacher will not execute their responsibility in the vocation they have chosen. Due to this, during teacher preparation, Pedagogical Content Knowledge is emphasized.
Teachers gain Pedagogical Content Knowledge from various sources. Friedrichsen, Abell, Pareja, Brown, Lankford, and Volkmann (2009) distinguished three potential sources of Pedagogical Content Knowledge. They listed the sources as professional development programs, teaching experiences, and lastly teachers’ own learning experiences. During their days as students in teacher education programs, teachers are assisted in various ways to gain Pedagogical Content Knowledge. For example, during practice, they learn how to put the pedagogical skills they learned. Teacher education programs and other professional development programs create avenues for teachers to gain pedagogical content knowledge through workshops, lectures, working together with colleagues, and teaching practice. Then their experiences in their classrooms as they teach students to lead them to gain insight into which methodologies work best under specific situations. That last source is usually ignored. It indicates that the teacher’s professional knowledge begins to develop long before the teacher becomes a candidate entering into teacher education. This means the way teachers teach influences the prospective teachers’ professional knowledge and beliefs to a large extent. This type of learning is generally overlooked by teachers at all levels because unintentional and informal, it is.
Pedagogical Content Knowledge can be gained through formal and informal means. Learning educational opportunities for pedagogical content knowledge, formally designed by institutions, based on learning objectives that are generally prerequisites for certification, constitutes the formal means. Informal learning, students have clear ideas about the purpose of acquiring pedagogical skills. Informal learning, on the other hand, is not organized intentionally. It takes place incidentally and so can be considered as a ‘side effect’. As Kleickmann et al. (2012) described it, it has no goal concerning learning outcomes, and it is contextualized to a large extent. This is often called learning by experience. Informal but deliberative learning situations exist. This occurs in learning in groups, mentoring, and intentional practicing of some skills or tools. Werquin (2010) described informal but deliberative learning as non-formal learning. Unlike formal education, non-formal education does not occur in educational institutions and does not attract certification. Whether pedagogical content knowledge
Pedagogical Content Knowledge is used to bridge the gap between content knowledge and actual teaching. Bridging the gap ensures that content discussions are relevant to education and that discussions themselves are focused on the content. As such, Pedagogical Content Knowledge is something teachers must pay attention to. Teachers who possess and use good Pedagogical content knowledge have reasonable control over classroom management and assessment, knowledge about learning processes, teaching methods, and individual characteristics (Harr, Eichler, & Renkl, 2014). Such teachers can create an atmosphere that facilitates learning and can also present or facilitate the understanding of concepts by even lazy students. Students can make learning easier; hence, teachers with high pedagogical content knowledge can be classified as quality teachers. It is worth noting that it is not pedagogical content knowledge only that makes good teachers. A teacher will not be good if they are master of pedagogical knowledge but lacks subject matter content knowledge.
3.2 SUBJECT-MATTER KNOWLEDGE
Teaching aims to help learners develop intellectual resources that will enable them to participate fully in the main domains of human thought and inquiry. The degree to which the teacher can assist students to learn depends on the subject matter the teacher possesses. That is to say, teachers’ knowledge of subject-matter has influence on their efforts to assist students to learn that subject-matter. If a teacher is ignorant or not well informed he/she cannot do students any good, he/she will rather much harm them. When the teacher conceives knowledge in such a way that it is narrow, or do not have accurate information relating to a particular subject-matter, he/she will pass on these same shallow or inaccurate information to students. This kind of teacher will hardly recognize the consistent preconceptions and challenge the misconceptions of students. Such a teacher can introduce misconceptions as he/she uses texts uncritically or inappropriately alter them. It is the teacher’s conception of knowledge that shapes the kind of questions he/she asks and the ideas he/she reinforces as well as the sorts of tasks the teacher designs.
Teachers’ subject-matter matter content knowledge must go beyond the specific topics of their curriculum. This is because the teacher does not only define concepts for students. Teachers explain to students why a particular concept or definition is acceptable, why learners must know it and how it relates to other concepts or definitions. This can be done properly if the teacher possesses a good understanding of the subject-matter. This type of understanding includes an understanding of the intellectual context and value of the subject-matter. The understanding of subject matter generally reinforces the teacher’s confidence in delivering lessons, thereby making him/her a good teacher.
Experience is one of the factors that account for variations in teacher salary, the world over (Hanushek and Rivkin, 2006). The fact that salary differences are based on the number of years the teacher has served, suggests that employers believe the teachers experience makes him/her a better teacher and such a teacher must be motivated to remain in the service. Though some studies like that Hanushek (2011) have suggested that the experience positively influences teacher quality only in the first few years, and that beyond five years, experience ceases to have positive impact on teacher efficacy, common sense tells us the one who has been doing something for a long time does better and with ease. Experience will therefore continue to pay, since, more experienced teachers have the propensity to know more about the subject-matter they teach, and think and behave appropriately in the classroom, and have much more positive attitudes toward their students.
Teachers who have spent more years of teaching, usually, feel self-assured in their skill to use instructional and assessment tools. These teachers are able to reach even the most difficult-to-reach students in their classrooms. They also have greater confidence in their capability to control the class and prevent incidence that might make the teaching and learning process difficult. Their experience makes them much more patient and tolerant than their counterpart with few years of experience (Wolters & Daugherty, 2007). Novice teachers progressively gain and develop teaching and classroom management skills needed to make them effective teachers. They spend time learning themselves – trying to understand fully the job they have entered. The teachers who have spent more years teaching have gained a rich store of knowledge the less experience teachers will be trying to build. Teachers’ sense of effectiveness is generally associated with good attitudes, behaviors and interactions with their students. This is something the experienced teacher has already acquired. These explain why more experienced teachers are usually more effective teachers than the novices.
Another reason more experienced teachers tend to be better teachers than their inexperienced counterparts, is that, experienced teachers have gained additional training, and hence, have acquired additional teaching skills, needed to be effective from direct experience. Usually the training of teachers does not end at the initial teacher training stage. After graduation, teachers attend capacity building seminars, workshops and conferences. These give teachers the opportunity to learn emerging teaching techniques and also refresh their memories on the things they have learnt. Such seminars, workshops and conferences mostly add to the teacher’s store of knowledge. The other advantage the experienced teachers have is that they have encountered more situations to develop the skills needed to be effective teachers through additional direct, and sometimes indirect experiences. That is to say, they have encountered challenging situations which gave them the opportunity to build their skills. Whether they were able to overcome these challenging situation or not, does not matter so much. If the teachers encounter difficult situations in their classes, they learn from them. If the teachers are able to overcome difficult situations, they get to know how to resolve such situations at the next encounter, otherwise their reflections and suggestions from co-teachers gives them ideas about how to approach same or similar situations. They also have a greater chance of being exposed to current and competent models. More experienced teachers have a higher chance of demonstrating superior self-efficacy in most areas, because they have learned the needed classroom management and instructional skills from their colleagues. Teachers who have been in active service for many years are most likely to be classified as quality teachers, because of what they have learnt from in-service training, capacity building workshops and seminars, their interaction with other teachers and what they have learnt from experience in their classrooms.
Teacher education aims at providing teacher education program through initial teacher training for teacher trainees, and in-service training for practicing teachers in order to produce knowledgeable and committed teachers for effective teaching and learning. To realize this mission, teacher education programs have been instituted for the training of teachers. These programs differ from one country to another. Even within the same country, there may be different programs training teachers for the same certificate. These alternative programs are a created, specially, where there are shortages of teachers, and attempts are being made to train large numbers of teachers at a time. These alternative programs ease the teacher certification requirement, allowing those who under normal circumstances would not become teachers. This introduces serious challenges. Because large numbers of teachers are needed within a short period, their training is somewhat fast-tracked resulting in what is usually referred to as half-baked teachers – teachers of lower quality. Applicants who did not gain admission into the program of their choice come into teaching only because they have nowhere else to go. Such applicants tend not to be dedicated to the teaching service in the end. Fast-tracking initial teacher preparation actually harm the mission for which the initial teacher training institutions were created. This is because the teacher produced through such training are usually not of high quality.
Teacher preparation has a direct impact on students’ achievement. The most important in-school factors upon which student’s success hinges, is a teacher who has been well prepared. A well-prepared teacher is one who has gone through a strong teacher preparation program. It is therefore necessary for educators to work to create needed improvements in teacher preparation. To strengthen teacher preparation, teacher preparation programs must provide strong preparation during the initial teacher training period and give support to fresh teachers until they are inducted. Pre-service teacher education should emphasize the acquisition of effective teaching strategies. This can be done in methodology classes and corresponding field experiences. Students who have quality teachers make achievement gains, while those with ineffective teachers show declines, therefore having high quality teachers in classrooms has a positive impact on students’ achievements.
Pedagogical content knowledge, subject matter content knowledge and experience determines the quality of a teacher. Teachers make subject-matter accessible to students by using Pedagogical content knowledge. Pedagogical content knowledge has two broad areas of knowledge: teachers’ knowledge of students’ subject-matter preconceptions and teachers’ knowledge of teaching strategies. What Pedagogical content knowledge does is that, it links subject-matter content knowledge and the practice of teaching, making sure that discussions on content are appropriate and that, discussions focus on the content and help students to retain the content. The teacher’s job is to facilitate the learning of subject-matter by students. The degree to which the teacher can assist students to learn depends on the subject-matter content knowledge the teacher possesses. Teachers who possess inaccurate information or comprehend the subject-matter in narrow ways, harm students by passing on the same false or shallow subject-matter knowledge to their students. The last of the three determinants of teacher quality is experience. Teachers who have served more years gain additional and more specific training by attending seminars, conferences and workshops and in-service training and so tend to understand their job better. They also might have met and solved many challenging situations in their classroom and therefore know exactly what to do in any situation.